Guide to the Anti-Vietnam-War Strike Materials

Collection Title: Anti-Vietnam-War Strike Materials
Dates: May 6 - 12, 1970
Identification: 31/6/88
Creator: Northwestern Anti-Vietnam War Strike, May 6-12, 1970
Extent: 3 Boxes
Language of Materials: English
Abstract: The Anti-Vietnam War Strike Materials Collection comprises a diverse assortment of documents and other materials relating to the University-wide strike that took place over a seven day period in May of 1970. The collection spans the period of the strike and its aftermath through the summer and fall of 1970, and includes several items predating the strike but important to its eventual realization. This collection of newspaper clippings, press releases, flyers, and memosrecords the events that too
Acquisition Information: This collection is formed of materials acquired in three accessions: Accession No. 74-120, consisting of materials removed from the University Archives general files; a significant portion of Accession No.80-114, transferred to the Archives by Thomas Lifka, Associate Dean of Students, on August 4, 1980; and the photocopied newspaper clippings that comprised Accession No. 85-117, transferred to Archives by Mel Lewis, Office of the Chancellor, in April, 1985.
Processing Information: Leon Hilton, Summer 2005
Conditions Governing Access: None.
Related Materials: Series 31/6/89, Student Protests and Strikes at Northwestern, 1965-1979; University Archives Photograph Collection (“Student Protest”); Subject file, “Anti-Vietnam War—Student Strike” (Archives Reading Room); Student Portest and the Technocratic Society: The Case of ROTC, by Jack Nusan Porter (copy in Archives NU History Section, Reading Room); student papers (Archives Reading Room); Eva Jefferson Biographical File (Archives Reading Room); Files on individual student groups (Archives General Files, Student Activities); On Strike! Newsletter (Archives Serials Collection).
Repository: Northwestern University Archives
Deering Library, Room 110
1970 Campus Dr.
Evanston, IL, 60208-2300
URL: http://www.library.northwestern.edu/archives
Email: archives@northwestern.edu
Phone: 847-491-3354

Biographical/Historical Information

As on many university campuses throughout the country, the spring of 1970 proved to be a watershed moment in the history of student activism at Northwestern. Campus reaction to a series of events coalesced to produce a climate of political ferment, culminating in a student-initiated University-wide strike that lasted for seven days, from May 5 through 12, 1970.

Although many factors contributed to the explosive situation on campus at that time, two events may be cited as immediate causes of the May 1970 strike. On April 25, 1970, President Nixon announced that US military operations in South East Asia, already fully engaged in the Vietnam, would expand into Cambodia. This was a direct reversal of Nixon’s campaign pledges to reduce American involvement in the region, and accelerated the rapidly growing anti-war movement on college campuses throughout the country. Then, on Monday, May 4, 1970, Ohio National Guard troops opened fire on an anti-war demonstration at Kent State University, killing four students and seriously injuring nine others. The Kent State shootings sent shock waves throughout the nation. The outrage over the Kent State shootings, and the escalating war in South East Asia, caused hundreds of colleges and universities across the United States—including Northwestern—to join in a loosely organized but highly effective “nationwide strike.”

The events of the Northwestern strike were highly charged but primarily peaceful. On May 5, the day after the Kent State shootings, a groundswell of student outrage prompted student leaders to convene a forum, at which it was decided to strike. Chancellor J. Roscoe Miller responded the same day with a statement that condemned violence, be it in South East Asia, at Kent State, or at Northwestern, and ended by declaring that members of the University community should “show their concern in a manner consistent with the traditions of the academic community.” An emergency session of the University Senate resolved to suspend classes for the remainder of the week in recognition of student concerns and issued a resolution to “join the developing nationwide strike of the entire academic community.”

On the following day, May 6, students initiated the strike with a series of demands:

• end the war in South East Asia

• bar campus security from carrying guns or other firearms

• open the University stock portfolio and eliminate any “war stocks”

• remove academic credit from NROTC

• convert NROTC facilities on campus into a childcare center

In addition to these demands, students made clear their intention to shut down the normal operations of the University. In their public statements, students were careful to point out—and administrators were anxious to emphasize—that the strike was not against Northwestern, but rather with the institution in opposition to the Vietnam War and the Kent State shootings. For the remainder of the week, students leafleted the Evanston community and organized demonstrations and protests on Deering Meadow and at other campus locations.

Several events of the strike merit special mention. First, for several days student activists managed to erect a barricade at Sheridan Road and Chicago Avenue, even as Evanston Police re-routed traffic around areas of student congregation. The Sheridan barricade proved to be a point of contention between the students and the Evanston community, as many community members expressed frustration at the inconvenience. Second, although the University Senate initially resolved that the strike would last only through Friday, May 8, students voted on that Friday to extend the strike through the following Wednesday. That evening, a rally at Dyche Stadium (now Ryan Field) attracted about 5,000 students and community members. Evanston city officials, fearing violence, requested that the National Guard be called in. However, the Guard was diverted from the stadium at the last minute and conflict was avoided. Third, on Wednesday, May 13, the day the strike was to end and classes resume as normal, a group of about 40 students and other young activists broke into the Northwestern NROTC headquarters in Lunt Hall, where they broke furniture and destroyed files and other organizational material. There were only minor injuries, but despite student protests the administration decided to press charges against the 33 Northwestern students arrested at the site. This incident proved to be the only violent episode of the strike.

One significant product of the strike was the creation of a short-lived “New University” to educate the community about the war in Vietnam as well as other social and political issues of concern during the course of the strike and beyond. The New University involved faculty as well as students, who were successful at designing and implementing courses, art projects, performances and demonstrations. They also produced their own daily newspaper, On Strike! The Official Newspaper of the New University (May 6-17, 1970; see the University Archives’ Serials Collection, call number 31/00/99).

On Tuesday, May 12, students voted to return to class on May 13 under a provisional plan which provided that they could attend their regular classes or go to alternative New University classes designed to further the aims of the strike. Negotiations of various student demands continued over the remaining weeks of the semester; trustees agreed to open the stock portfolio to public scrutiny but administrators declined to disarm University security personnel.

The nation-wide campus protests of May 1970 brought a new level of attention to the anti-war sentiment of the American public; in this way, they were responsible in some part for the eventual withdrawal of American forces from Vietnam in 1973.

Scope and Content

Leaflets/Distributed Information includes publicity for gatherings, protests and counter-protests, leaflets distributed by students in the Evanston community, form letters sent to University and government officials, and political statements circulated by individual students and organizations. Of particular interest is a file (Box 1, Folder 10) containing a collection of material appearing in faculty mailboxes over the course of the strike, and a leaflet lampooning strike demands for a modified grading system.

The Official University Position/Administrative Response is documented by various University press releases reacting to and commenting upon the strike, as well as inter- and intra- administrative correspondence during and after the event. Included also is the official administrative response to demands presented to the University by Eva Jefferson on behalf of the Associated Student Government and the strike committee; the University call center log, which provides a nearly minute-by-minute chronology of events; and a lecture entitled “The Idea of Disinterestedness in the University,” delivered at Northwestern in October of 1970 by Gordon N. Ray, then the president of the Guggenheim Foundation, discussing the significance of the Northwestern and other university strikes in the context of the broader politicization of the academy.

Newspaper Clippings were gathered from local and national newspapers (including the Daily Northwestern), and document the events of the strike as well as reactions, editorials, and letters to the editor. Several entire issues of the Daily Northwestern published during the strike are also included in this section.

Files documenting significant Events of the Strike include material relating to the April 28, 1970, fire in the Linguistics building that exacerbated campus tensions leading up the strike (Box 2, Folder 7); the memorial service for the Kent State dead held on Deering Meadow (Box 2, Folder 11) and proposals for the “New University” (Box 2, Folder 10) that was set up by faculty and students during the strike to educate the University community about the Vietnam War and other issues of concern to the student body. Of interest, as well, is a proposal by a group of students for the permanent closure of Sheridan Road inspired by the “festive atmosphere” of the barricade during the strike.

Files documenting activities and responses from Student Groups involved in the strike are organized alphabetically by the name of the group. These files contain political statements, flyers for events, and leaflets distributed during the strike and its aftermath. The Associated Student Government file (Box 2, Folder 15) contains a daily strike schedule and frequent “news releases.” Included in this subseries are files on CADRE (Chicago Area Draft Resistors), the Northwestern chapter of SDS (Students for a Democratic Society), and the Young America Foundation, a conservative student group that opposed the strike.

Faculty Participation in the strike is documented by departmental statements of support, a petition circulated opposing the University’s sanction of strike activity (Box 3, Folder 17) and a file on NUFAC (NU Faculty Action Committee), a group committed to furthering the aims of the strike against the escalation of the conflict in South East Asia and the use of force against students on university campuses (Box 3, Folder 23).

Arrangement of Materials

The collection is organized into six subseries and materials are arranged chronologically within individual folders.

Subjects

Corporate Name

Northwestern University (Evanston, Ill.)--Student strike, 1970

Subjects

College students--Political activity--Illinois--Evanston--History--20th century

Northwestern Anti-Vietnam War Strike, Evanston, Ill., 1970

Student strikes--Illinois--Evanston

Vietnam War, 1961-1975--Protest movements--Illinois--Evanston


Container List / Contents

  • Leaflets/Information Distributed
    • National/Chicago/Evanston Misc. Protest Material, May 1970Box 1, Folder 1
    • Announcements, Strike-Related Activity and Information, 1970Box 1, Folder 2
    • Announcement of Rallies—Strike, May 1970Box 1, Folder 3
    • Form Letters Sent to Officials in Support of Peace, May 1970Box 1, Folder 4
    • Political Tracts and Petitions Circulated, May 1970Box 1, Folder 5
    • Lampooning the Strike and its Demands, May 1970Box 1, Folder 6
    • Tracts Urging the Continuation or the End of the Strike, May 1970Box 1, Folder 7
    • Grading Proposals, Spring 1970Box 1, Folder 8
    • Proposed Fall Recess, 1970Box 1, Folder 9
    • Materials Appearing in Faculty Mailboxes During the Course of the Strike, Spring 1970Box 1, Folder 10
  • Official University Position/Administrative Response
    • Official University Communications on the Strike, 1970Box 1, Folder 11
    • Information Leaflets on the Strike and NU’s Position Distributed in the Evanston Community and on Campus, 1970Box 1, Folder 12
    • Student Hearing and Appeal Board, 1970Box 1, Folder 13
    • University Call Log During the Strike, 1970Box 1, Folder 14
    • The Idea of Disinterestedness in the University”, 1970Box 1, Folder 15
  • Newspaper Clippings
    • Xeroxed Newspaper Articles and Clippings, 1970Box 1, Folder 16
    • Daily Northwestern During Strike, May 1970Box 2, Folder 1
  • Events of the Strike
    • Linguistics Department Fire, April 1970Box 2, Folder 2
    • “A Preliminary Look into the Feasibility of Permanently Closing Sheridan Road in the Vicinity of NU”, June 1070Box 2, Folder 3
    • Strike Information Center—NU Campus News and Strike Information, May 1970Box 2, Folder 4
    • New/Alternate University, May 1970Box 2, Folder 5
    • Memorial Service for the Dead at Kent State, 1970Box 2, Folder 6
    • Festival for Peace, May 1970Box 2, Folder 7
  • Student Groups/Response
    • April 19th Coalition, no dateBox 2, Folder 8
    • Art Students for Peace, May 1970Box 2, Folder 9
    • Associated Student Government (including Strike Newsletter and Schedule), 1968-1970Box 2, Folder 10
    • CADRE (Chicago Area Draft Resisters), 1967-1970Box 2, Folder 11
    • Evanston Coalition, 1970Box 2, Folder 12
    • Jewish Student Movement, May 1970Box 2, Folder 13
    • Peace Train, May 1970Box 2, Folder 14
    • Navy Times are Changin’, 1970Box 2, Folder 15
    • NU-PAC (Northwestern University Political Action Committee), 1970Box 2, Folder 16
    • Reports from Strike Central Information on Other Universities at Scott Hall, May 1970Box 2, Folder 17
    • Revolutionary Students Brigade (NU), 1970?Box 2, Folder 18
    • Strike Media Center, 1970Box 2, Folder 19
    • SDS (Students for a Democratic Society) NU Chapter, 1969-1970Box 2, Folder 20
    • SMC (Student Mobilization Committee) NU Chapter, 1969-1970Box 2, Folder 21
    • SMC (Student Mobilization Committee), 1972-1973Box 2, Folder 22
    • Vietnam Moratorium Committee, 1969-1970Box 2, Folder 23
    • Vietnam Moratorium Committee, Oct. 15, 1969Box 2, Folder 24
    • Women’s Liberation and Abortion, 1970-no dateBox 2, Folder 25
    • Young Republicans NU Chapter, 1970Box 2, Folder 26
    • YSA (Young Socialist Alliance), 1970Box 3, Folder 1
    • YSA (Young Socialist Alliance), 1970Box 3, Folder 2
  • Faculty Participation
    • Faculty Response, May 1970Box 3, Folder 3
    • Anthropology Dept., May 1970Box 3, Folder 4
    • English Dept. Strike, May 1970Box 3, Folder 5
    • History Dept. Strike, May 1970Box 3, Folder 6
    • Northwestern University Library and the Strike, May 1970Box 3, Folder 7
    • Positions of Actions Taken by Various Departments Concerning the Strike, May 1970Box 3, Folder 8
    • NUFAC (Northwestern University Faculty Action Committee), 1970-1972Box 3, Folder 9