Guide to the Jack Berry (1918-1980) Papers

Collection Title: Jack Berry (1918-1980) Papers
Dates: 1940-1980
Identification: 11/3/18/1
Creator: Berry, Jack
Extent: 18 Boxes
Language of Materials: English
Abstract: The Jack Berry Papers fill eighteen legal size boxes. They consist of small amounts of biographical materials, correspondence, and reports along with larger bodies of research files and publications. At Northwestern Berry served as the director of the Program of Oriental and African Languages. In 1970 and 1971 he held visiting professorships at the University of Ghana and the University of the West Indies.
Acquisition Information: The Jack Berry Papers were transferred to the Northwestern University Archives by Mohammed Eissa via Megan Traquair, Program of the African and Oriental Languages, on November 10, 1987 (Accession #87-244). The first addition to the Jack Berry Papers was received from the Anthropology Dept. on September 8, 1993 (Accession # 93-138). The second addition to the Jack Berry Papers was transferred to the Northwestern University Archives by the Linguistics Department on July 25, 1991 as Accession #91-121. The third addition to the Jack Berry Papers was separated from the papers of Astair Demoz, Department of Linguistics (Accession #99-116), and donated to the Northwestern University Archives on July 20, 1999, as Accession #99-137.
Processing Information: William K. Beatty, November-December 1987; William K. Beatty, September - October 1993; Alex L. Strauss, March 1998; Catherine Anderson; July 14, 2000.
Separated Materials: Approximately twelve linear inches of material unrelated to Berry was transferred to the Africana Department of the University Library. Small amounts of duplicate and non-relevant material were discarded. In the first addition, approximately five linear inches of material unrelated to Berry was transferred to the Africana Department of the University Library. Ten linear inches of extraneous material and five linear inches of duplicates were discarded. In the second addition, one quarter inch of duplicates was discarded. Processor: Alex L. Strauss, March 1998. In the third addition, approximately nine linear inches of duplicates and extraneous material were discarded.
Conditions Governing Access: None.
Repository: Northwestern University Archives
Deering Library, Room 110
1970 Campus Dr.
Evanston, IL, 60208-2300
URL: http://www.library.northwestern.edu/archives
Email: archives@northwestern.edu
Phone: 847-491-3354

Biographical/Historical Information

Jack Berry was born in Leeds, England, on December 13, 1918. He obtained his B.A. in Classics at the University of Leeds in 1939 and his Ph.D. in Comparative Linguistics at the University of London in 1952.

Berry taught at the University of London from 1946 to 1963 when he came to the United States. After brief periods at Michigan State University and Indiana University, Berry accepted an appointment at Northwestern University in 1964 as professor of African Languages and Linguistics. He held this position until his death on December 4, 1980, in Evanston, Illinois.

At Northwestern Berry served as the director of the Program of Oriental and African Languages. In 1970 and 1971 he held visiting professorships at the University of Ghana and the University of the West Indies.

Berry married Winifred Mary Ingle; the couple had one child, Mark Adrian.

Scope and Content

The Jack Berry Papers fill five legal size boxes. They consist of small amounts of biographical materials, correspondence, and reports along with larger bodies of research files and publications.

The biographical materials include curricula vitae, lists of publications, clippings, and news releases.

Correspondence and reports deal primarily with linguistic matters and are arranged chronologically in one folder.

The research files contain manuscript and typed drafts of several dictionaries, many word lists, and a variety of notes. These are primarily concerned with the Ga and Adangme languages. This material includes phrases and lists of proverbs in addition to lists of words. There are also materials for the Jamaican, Krio, and Twi Languages. Research files are arranged according to language.

Berry's publications contain drafts of three articles, a printed copy of a Krio to English dictionary, and printed copies of a Dictionary of Sierra Leone Krio, An Introduction to Akan, and An Introductory Course in Ga.

Addition, Boxes 6-13

The first addition fills eight legal size boxes with the major categories being research files (4 boxes) and publications (3 boxes). There are also small amounts of education files, correspondence, and teaching files.

The research files consist primarily of notes, word lists, and other materials related to Berry's work with African languages, especially Adangme, Creole, Ewe, Ga, Krio, Nzema, and Twi.

The publications include three major items: word lists and notes related to a dictionary from English to Twi, Asante, Fante, and Nzema; comparative word lists of several languages; and several sections of a Krio/English and English/Krio dictionary.

The educational material consists of a copy of Berry's doctoral dissertation, “Structural Affinities of the Volta River Languages and Their Significance for Linguistic Classification.” The correspondence refers mostly to Berry's research. The teaching files contain student papers and bibliographies.

Addition, Boxes 14-15

The second addition to the Jack Berry Papers fills two boxes, one of which is half-size. The addition primarily consists African fables (most likely from Ghana) translated by Berry into English. In several instances the original African text is provided with Berry's English translation.

There is also one folder of Ghanaian story and exercise books for children.

Addition, Boxes 16-18

The third addition to the Jack Berry papers fills three boxes, one of which is legal size. The addition consists primarily of correspondence, including personal letters and those relating to Berry's publications and to administrative and research matters. Of particular interest is the correspondence with Dr. Joshua A. Fishman, for whom Berry edited one issue of the International Journal of the Sociology of Language.

Also included are two of Berry's textbooks on African languages, and some of his papers that were published in other works. There is also one folder of field notes on Guang, from Berry's work in the Gold Coast in 1951.

Within each folder, correspondence is arranged in chronological order, with the exception of the folders of personal correspondence and reference letters, which are arranged alphabetically according to the name of the correspondent.

Subjects

Personal Name

Berry, Jack

Subjects

African languages--Study and teaching (Higher)--Illinois--Evanston

African literature--Study and teaching (Higher)--Illinois--Evanston

College teachers--United States

Linguistics--Research--United States


Container List / Contents

  • Research Files
    • Ga-Adangme to English Dictionary: A, n.d.Box 1, Folder 3
    • Ga-Adangme to English Dictionary: B, n.d.Box 1, Folder 4
    • Ga-Adangme to English Dictionary: D-G, n.d.Box 1, Folder 5
    • Ga-Adangme to English Dictionary: H-L, n.d.Box 1, Folder 6
    • Ga-Adangme to English Dictionary: M-S, n.d.Box 1, Folder 7
    • Ga-Adangme to English Dictionary: Sw-Z, n.d.Box 1, Folder 8
    • Ga-Adangme to English Dictionary: Miscellaneous, n.dBox 1, Folder 9
    • English to Ga-Adangme Dictionary: A, n.d.Box 1, Folder 10
    • English to Ga-Adangme Dictionary: B, n.d.Box 1, Folder 11
    • English to Ga-Adangme Dictionary: C, n.d.Box 1, Folder 12
    • English to Ga-Adangme Dictionary: D, n.d.Box 2, Folder 1
    • English to Ga-Adangme Dictionary: E, n.d.Box 2, Folder 2
    • English to Ga-Adangme Dictionary: F-H, n.d.Box 2, Folder 3
    • English to Ga-Adangme Dictionary: I-Z, n.d.Box 2, Folder 4
    • English to Ga-Adangme Dictionary: A-B, n.d.Box 2, Folder 5
    • English to Ga-Adangme Dictionary: C-E, n.d.Box 2, Folder 6
    • Ga-Adangme Word List: Tones, Nos. 1-104, n.d.Box 2, Folder 7
    • Ga-Adangme Word List: Tones, Nos. 105-190, n.d.Box 2, Folder 8
    • Ga-Adangme Word List: Tones, Nos. 191-256, n.d.Box 2, Folder 9
    • Adangme: Index, n.d.Box 2, Folder 10
    • Ga: Index, n.d.Box 2, Folder 11
    • Ga-Adangme, et al.: Animal Names, n.d.Box 2, Folder 12
    • Ga-Adangme, et al.: Bird Names, n.d.Box 3, Folder 1
    • Ga-Adangme: Bird and Plant Names, n.d.Box 3, Folder 2
    • Ga-Adangme: Fish and Related Names, n.d.Box 3, Folder 3
    • Ga: Medical Terms, n.d.Box 3, Folder 4
    • Ga: Star Terms, n.d.Box 3, Folder 5
    • Ga-Adangme: Word Lists, Miscellaneous (1), n.d.Box 3, Folder 6
    • Ga-Adangme: Word Lists, Miscellaneous (2), n.d.Box 3, Folder 7
    • Ga-Adangme: Word Lists, Miscellaneous (3), n.d.Box 3, Folder 8
    • Ga-Adangme: Word Lists, Miscellaneous (4), n.d.Box 3, Folder 9
    • Ga-Adangme: Word Lists, Miscellaneous (5), n.d.Box 3, Folder 10
    • Ga-Adangme: Stories, n.d.Box 3, Folder 11
    • English-Adangme: Word Count Lists, n.d.Box 3, Folder 12
    • Adangme: Phrases (1), n.d.Box 3, Folder 13
    • Adangme: Phrases (2), n.d.Box 3, Folder 14
    • Adangme : Writing, n.d.Box 4, Folder 1
    • Ga: Phrases, n.d.Box 4, Folder 2
    • Ga: Proverbs, n.d.Box 4, Folder 3
    • General Index: Eastern Akan Group, Plants, n.d.Box 4, Folder 4
    • Jamaican to English Dictionary: B, n.d.Box 4, Folder 5
    • Jamaican to English Dictionary: H-J, n.d.Box 4, Folder 6
    • Jamaican to English Dictionary: K, n.d.Box 4, Folder 7
    • Jamaican to English Dictionary: L-M, n.d.Box 4, Folder 8
    • Jamaican to English Dictionary: N-O, n.d.Box 4, Folder 9
    • Jamaican to English Dictionary: P-Q, n.d.Box 4, Folder 10
    • Jamaican to English Dictionary: S, n.d.Box 4, Folder 11
    • Jamaican to English Dictionary: T, n.d.Box 4, Folder 12
    • Four Jamaican Creole Tests, n.d.Box 4, Folder 13
    • Krio (Sierra Leone), 1959-60Box 4, Folder 14
    • Krio Dictionary Proposal, 1964Box 5, Folder 1
    • Labadi: Words and Forms, n.d.Box 5, Folder 2
    • Mende, et al.: Misspellings of English, 196UBox 5, Folder 3
    • Twi, et al.: insects and Related Terms, 1940Box 5, Folder 4
    • Twi, et al.: Snakes, n.d.Box 5, Folder 5
    • Twi, et al.: Word Lists, n.d.Box 5, Folder 6
    • Twi: for Recording, n.d.Box 5, Folder 7
    • Unidentified: Wordlist: H-K, n.d.Box 5, Folder 8
    • Unidentified: Proverbs, n.d.Box 5, Folder 9
  • Publications
    • On the History of Jamaican and Krio, n.d.Box 5, Folder 10
    • The Making of Alphabets, 1957Box 5, Folder 11
    • Some Notes on the Pronunciation of the Krobo Dialect of Adangme, n.d.Box 5, Folder 12
    • An Abridged English-Twi Dictionary, n.d.Box 5, Folder 13
    • Preface A Dictionary of Sierra Leone, Krio, A-L, 1966Box 5, Folder 14
    • A Dictionary of Sierra Leone Krio, M-Z, 1966Box 5, Folder 15
    • An Introduction to Fin, 1975Box 5, Folder 16
    • An Introductory Course on Ga, 1969Box 5, Folder 17
  • Addition 1
      Scope and Contents: The first addition fills eight legal size boxes with the major categories being research files (4 boxes) and publications (3 boxes). There are also small amounts of education files, correspondence, and teaching files.The research files consist primarily of notes, word lists, and other materials related to Berry's work with African languages, especially Adangme, Creole, Ewe, Ga, Krio, Nzema, and Twi.The publications include three major items: word lists and notes related to a dictionary from English to Twi, Asante, Fante, and Nzema; comparative word lists of several languages; and several sections of a Krio/English and English/Krio dictionary.The educational material consists of a copy of Berry's doctoral dissertation, “Structural Affinities of the Volta River Languages and Their Significance for Linguistic Classification.” The correspondence refers mostly to Berry's research. The teaching files contain student papers and bibliographies.
    • Educational Files
      • Ph.D. Thesis “Structural Affinities of the Volta River Languages and their significance for Linguistic Classification” Copy 3, 1952Box 6, Folder 1
    • Correspondence
      • General, 1946-1979Box 6, Folder 2
      • Goodman, Morris, 1964Box 6, Folder 3
    • Teaching Files
      • African Literature, Student Papers, 1964Box 6, Folder 4
      • Bibliographies, n.d.Box 6, Folder 5
    • Research Files
      • Abbey and Esabie, n.d.Box 6, Folder 6
      • Adangme, n.d.Box 6, Folder 7
      • Adangme phonetics, n.d.Box 6, Folder 8
      • Adangme proverbs, n.d.Box 6, Folder 9
      • Anum, n.d.Box 6, Folder 10
      • Bantu, common, n.d.Box 6, Folder 11
      • Baule, n.d.Box 6, Folder 12
      • Comparative African Language (1), n.d.Box 6, Folder 13
      • Comparative African Language (2), n.d.Box 6, Folder 14
      • Comparative African Language (3), n.d.Box 6, Folder 15
      • Creole (1), n.d.Box 6, Folder 16
      • Creole (2), n.d.Box 7, Folder 1
      • Creole (3), n.d.Box 7, Folder 2
      • Creole (4), n.d.Box 7, Folder 3
      • Creole Dictionary (1), n.d.Box 7, Folder 4
      • Creole Dictionary (2), n.d.Box 7, Folder 5
      • Creole Dictionary (3), n.d.Box 7, Folder 6
      • Creole Proverbs, n.d.Box 7, Folder 7
      • Early Keys, notes, 1956Box 7, Folder 8
      • Elbrie, n.d.Box 7, Folder 9
      • Ekere (1), 1950Box 7, Folder 10
      • Ekere (2), 1950Box 7, Folder 11
      • Esakie, Ga, and Adangme, n.d.Box 7, Folder 12
      • Ewe, n.d.Box 7, Folder 13
      • Ewe and others, nouns, n.d.Box 7, Folder 14
      • Ewe and Adangme, n.d.Box 7, Folder 15
      • Folk Tales, n.d.Box 7, Folder 16
      • Freetown, n.d.Box 7, Folder 17
      • Freetown, place names, n.d.Box 8, Folder 1
      • Ga (1), n.d.Box 8, Folder 2
      • Ga (2), n.d.Box 8, Folder 3
      • Ga and Adangme, n.d.Box 8, Folder 4
      • Ga Proverbs, n.d.Box 8, Folder 5
      • Gwan (1), n.d.Box 8, Folder 6
      • Gwan (2), n.d.Box 8, Folder 7
      • Jamaican Words (1), n.d.Box 8, Folder 8
      • Jamaican Words (2), n.d.Box 8, Folder 9
      • Krio, n.d.Box 8, Folder 10
      • Krio, plays, n.d.Box 8, Folder 11
      • Krio, poems, n.d.Box 8, Folder 12
      • Krio, poems and literature, n.d.Box 8, Folder 13
      • Krio, proverbs, n.d.Box 9, Folder 1
      • Krio, riddles, n.d.Box 9, Folder 2
      • Krio, Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, trans. into, n.d.Box 9, Folder 3
      • Krio, Stories and excerpts, 1952Box 9, Folder 4
      • Krio, Tones, 1974Box 9, Folder 5
      • Limba, n.d.Box 9, Folder 6
      • Linguistic Classification and Genetic Relationships, n.d.Box 9, Folder 7
      • Madina, 1967Box 9, Folder 8
      • Miscellaneous, n.d.Box 9, Folder 9
      • Nzema and others (1), n.d.Box 9, Folder 10
      • Nzema and others (2), n.d.Box 9, Folder 11
      • Nzema and others (3), n.d.Box 9, Folder 12
      • Ogbia, 1961Box 9, Folder 13
      • Proverbs, n.d.Box 9, Folder 14
      • Proverbs, equivalent, n.d.Box 9, Folder 15
      • Sierra Leone, 1960Box 9, Folder 16
      • Sierra Leone, history, 1960Box 10, Folder 1
      • Sierra Leone, Krio and teaching English, 1960Box 10, Folder 2
      • Sierra Leone, morphology, n.d.Box 10, Folder 3
      • Twi and others (1), n.d.Box 10, Folder 4
      • Twi and others (2), n.d.Box 10, Folder 5
      • Voice-Quality Alternates in Sudan Languages, n.d.Box 10, Folder 6
      • West African Languages, n.d.Box 10, Folder 7
      • Word Lists, miscellaneous, n.d.Box 10, Folder 8
    • Publications
      • Course on Ga, n.d.Box 10, Folder 9
      • Dictionary, English to Twi, Asante, Fante, and Nzema (1), n.d.Box 10, Folder 10
      • Dictionary, English to Twi, Asante, Fante, and Nzema (2), n.d.Box 10, Folder 11
      • Dictionary, English to Twi, Asante, Fante, and Nzema (3), n.d.Box 10, Folder 12
      • Dictionary, English to Twi, Asante, Fante, and Nzema (4), n.d.Box 11, Folder 1
      • Dictionary, English to Twi, Asante, Fante, and Nzema (5), n.d.Box 11, Folder 2
      • Dictionary, English to Twi, Asante, Fante, and Nzema (6), n.d.Box 11, Folder 3
      • Dictionary, English to Twi, Asante, Fante, and Nzema (7), n.d.Box 11, Folder 4
      • Dictionary, English to Twi, Asante, Fante, and Nzema (8), n.d.Box 11, Folder 5
      • Dictionary, English to Twi, Asante, Fante, and Nzema (9), n.d.Box 11, Folder 6
      • Dictionary, English to Twi, Asante, Fante, and Nzema (10), n.d.Box 11, Folder 7
      • Dictionary, English to Twi, Asante, Fante, and Nzema (11), n.d.Box 11, Folder 8
      • Guthrie's proofs (1), n.d.Box 11, Folder 9
      • Guthrie's proofs (2), n.d.Box 11, Folder 10
      • Guthrie's proofs (3), n.d.Box 11, Folder 11
      • Guthrie's proofs (4), n.d.Box 11, Folder 12
      • Guthrie's proofs (5), n.d.Box 12, Folder 1
      • Guthrie's proofs (6), n.d.Box 12, Folder 2
      • Guthrie's proofs (7), n.d.Box 12, Folder 3
      • Guthrie's proofs (8), n.d.Box 12, Folder 4
      • Introduction to Malinowski Collection, n.d.Box 12, Folder 5
      • Krio Dictionary, A, n.d.Box 12, Folder 6
      • Krio Dictionary, F, n.d.Box 12, Folder 7
      • Krio Dictionary, G, n.d.Box 12, Folder 8
      • Krio Dictionary, R, n.d.Box 12, Folder 9
      • Krio Dictionary, U-V, n.d.Box 12, Folder 10
      • Krio Dictionary, X-Y-Z, n.d.Box 12, Folder 11
      • Krio Dictionary, addenda, n.d.Box 12, Folder 12
      • Krio Dictionary, galleys, A-K, 1-150, n.d.Box 12, Folder 13
      • Krio Dictionary, 151-end, n.d.Box 13, Folder 1
      • Krio Dictionary, M-Z, 1-150, n.d.Box 13, Folder 2
      • Krio Dictionary, 151-191, n.d.Box 13, Folder 3
      • Language Groups, n.d.Box 13, Folder 4
      • “Linguistic Affinities in Africa South of the Sahara”, 1958Box 13, Folder 5
      • Preface, n.d.Box 13, Folder 6
      • “Sociolinguistic Research in Africa”, 1966Box 13, Folder 7
      • Twi, appendix, n.d.Box 13, Folder 8
      • Reprints, 1959-1962Box 13, Folder 9
  • Addition 2
      Scope and Contents: The second addition to the Jack Berry Papers fills two boxes, one of which is half-size. The addition primarily consists African fables (most likely from Ghana) translated by Berry into English. In several instances the original African text is provided with Berry's English translation.There is also one folder of Ghanaian story and exercise books for children.
    • African fables, n.d.Box 14, Folder 1
    • African fables, n.d.Box 14, Folder 2
    • African fables, n.d.Box 14, Folder 3
    • African fables, n.d.Box 14, Folder 4
    • African fables, n.d.Box 14, Folder 5
    • African fables, n.d.Box 14, Folder 6
    • African fables, n.d.Box 14, Folder 7
    • African fables, n.d.Box 14, Folder 8
    • African fables, n.d.Box 14, Folder 9
    • African fables, n.d.Box 15, Folder 1
    • African fables, n.d.Box 15, Folder 2
    • African fables, n.d.Box 15, Folder 3
    • African fables, n.d.Box 15, Folder 4
    • African publications, n.d.Box 15, Folder 5
  • Addition 3
      Scope and Contents: The third addition to the Jack Berry papers fills three boxes, one of which is legal size. The addition consists primarily of correspondence, including personal letters and those relating to Berry's publications and to administrative and research matters. Of particular interest is the correspondence with Dr. Joshua A. Fishman, for whom Berry edited one issue of the International Journal of the Sociology of Language.Also included are two of Berry's textbooks on African languages, and some of his papers that were published in other works. There is also one folder of field notes on Guang, from Berry's work in the Gold Coast in 1951.Within each folder, correspondence is arranged in chronological order, with the exception of the folders of personal correspondence and reference letters, which are arranged alphabetically according to the name of the correspondent.
    • Personal Correspondence, A-C, 1964-1977Box 16, Folder 1
    • Personal Correspondence, D-J, 1964-1977Box 16, Folder 2
    • Personal Correspondence, K-R, 1964-1977Box 16, Folder 3
    • Personal Correspondence, S-Z, 1964-1977Box 16, Folder 4
    • Miscellaneous Correspondence, 1964-1969; 1973-1978Box 16, Folder 5
    • Correspondence relating to purchases and subscriptions, 1964-1975Box 16, Folder 6
    • Correspondence with the University of the West Indies, 1971-1976Box 16, Folder 7
    • Correspondence relating to departmental affairs, 1964-1978Box 16, Folder 8
    • Recommendation letters for colleagues, 1965-1969Box 17, Folder 1
    • Recommendation letters for students, 1964-1969Box 17, Folder 2
    • Correspondence with graduate students supervised, 1964-1969Box 17, Folder 3
    • External Examiner records, 1966-1969; 1974Box 17, Folder 4
    • Invitations to lecture, 1964-1968Box 17, Folder 5
    • Works Reviewed, 1964-1970Box 17, Folder 6
    • Correspondence relating to Journal of African Languages, 1964-1968Box 17, Folder 7
    • Publications
      • “Relaxation Corner” in "Daily Guardian", n.d.Box 17, Folder 8
      • “African Literature” in Margetts: "The Mind of Man in Africa", 1962-1968Box 17, Folder 9
      • "Oxford Library of African Literature", 1964-1967Box 17, Folder 10
      • "Works of Malinowski", 1964-1968Box 17, Folder 11
      • "Folktales of West Africa", 1964-1969Box 17, Folder 12
      • "Handbook of African Languages": H. Languages of West Africa, 1966Box 18, Folder 1
      • “African Languages and Linguistics” in Brokensha and Crowder: "Africa in the Wider World", 1967Box 18, Folder 2
      • "An Introductory Course in Ga", 1969Box 18, Folder 3
      • Introduction to Zimmerman: Ga Dictionary, 1969Box 18, Folder 4
      • Festschrift for Klaus Wachsmann, 1973-1974Box 18, Folder 5
      • "International Journal of the Sociology of Language", 1973-1976Box 18, Folder 6
      • “Tone and Intonation in Guyanese English” in Juilland: "Linguistic Studies Presented to Joseph H. Greenberg.", 1975-1976Box 18, Folder 7
    • Research Projects
      • An Introductory Course in Ga, 1969Box 18, Folder 8
      • Introduction to Zimmerman: Ga Dictionary, 1969Box 18, Folder 9
      • Festschrift for Klaus Wachsmann, 1973-1974Box 18, Folder 10
      • International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 1973-1976Box 18, Folder 11
      • “Tone and Intonation in Guyanese English” in Juilland: "Linguistic Studies Presented to Joseph H. Greenberg"., 1975-1976Box 18, Folder 12
      • Research ProjectsBox 18, Folder 13
      • Field Notes on Guang, 1951Box 18, Folder 14
      • Fulbright-Hayes Grants, 1965-1969Box 18, Folder 15
      • Research Library List, 1968Box 18, Folder 16
      • Multilingualism in Africa, 1968Box 18
      • Manuscript of Ariza: "De l'orthographe du Creole haitien", 1968Box 18
      • Records of "An Introduction to Akan", 1971-1975Box 18
      • "An Introduction to Akan", 1975Box 18
      • English in the Caribbean, 1971-1976Box 18
      • SSRC Grant: African Etyma in Caribbean English, 1973-1975Box 18
  • Biographical Material, 1963-80Box 1, Folder 1
  • General Correspondence and Reports, 1940-67Box 1, Folder 2