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Ravel, Maurice, 1875-1937

 Person

Dates

  • Existence: 1875 - 1937

French composer and pianist Maurice Ravel (1875-1937) is widely regarded as one of the most original and popular composers of the early twentieth-century. His instrumental works explored new harmonic and melodic possibilities and compositional precision. He was also especially gifted at orchestration– both in his own compositions and in celebrated arrangements of others’ work. Ravel also drew inspiration from past musical forms, exotic themes, jazz and blues music and Spanish music–largely rooted in his mother’s Basque and Spanish origins.

Ravel studied composition with Fauré and counterpoint with Gédalge at the Paris Conservatoire (1889-1904). His repeated efforts to win and failure to receive the Prix de Rome, for which he competed four times (1901-1905) caused a public scandal and ultimately led to Fauré replacing the director of the Conservatoire. Always independent and uneasy with the musical establishment of his day, Ravel associated with a group of artists known as the, “apaches” including composer Florent Schmitt, the pianist Ricardo Viñes, and the poets Tristan Klingsor and Léon-Paul Fargue.

Some of Ravel’s early works were criticized by the Schola Cantorum and the Société Nationale as imitations of Debussy, however many of the ideas in these compositions such as “Jeux d'eau” actually predated Debussy’s impressionistic piano works. After rebutting the critics, Ravel further asserted his independence in helping found the Société Musicale Indépendente in 1909 to perform French and international works regardless of genre or style.

He composed a number of theatrical works including “L’heure espagnole,” (Opéra Comique, 1908) and “Daphnis et Chloé” for Diaghilev and the Ballet Russes (1909). When World War I erupted, Ravel volunteered for military service and repeatedly attempted to enlist as a French air force pilot before finally being accepted by the motor transport corps. During the last few years of the war his mother, to which he was very close, died unexpectedly while he was recuperating from dysentery.

After Debussy’s death in 1918, Ravel was regarded as France’s greatest composer, although he refused the Legion d’Honneur in 1920. He undertook several tours of Britain and North American in the 1920s and early 1930s. His four month American tour in 1928, was especially successful with conducting appearances, interviews and an important lecture at Rice University. The American press was especially fascinated by his interest in jazz and blues music and especially his “Sonata for violin and piano” (1923-27) which included the movement titled, “Blues.”

His most well-known composition was also one of his last. “Bolero,” is a one-movement orchestral ballet originally choreographed by Diaghilev and premiered at the Paris Opera in 1928. “Bolero” is typical of Ravel’s Spanish-inspired works in its use of short, repetitive and syncopated rhythms. However it is unique in only using shifts in instrumentation to color the pulsing dance rhythms.

Found in 2 Collections and/or Records:

Music-related autographs collection

 Collection
Identifier: Music Autographs
Scope and Contents Collection of single letters, manuscripts, photographs, and ephemera relating to composers, conductors, performers, musicologists, publishers, librettists, and stage directors.

Maurice Ravel correspondence

 Collection
Identifier: Ravel
Overview The Maurice Ravel correspondence collection consists of 68 letters to or from Maurice Ravel and members of his circle between 1896 and 1934.